In the second half of the 19th century, European countries, and sometimes the United States, embarked on a second and furious phase of Empire-building, known as New Imperialism. In contrast to the old colonialism of the 16th century, Imperialism 2.0 focused on Asia and Africa rather than Latin America. And unlike the Age of Discovery, New Imperialism was fueled by industrialization. France, for example, patched together the colony of Indochina, which included modern day Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. While the United States seized the Philippines, European countries competed over a scramble for territory in Africa. Although China never became a formal colony during this period, the British led the way in forcing the once proud Asian empire to open up its borders to trade. New Imperialism occurred during a short window of time—roughly 1840 to 1914—as European countries competed for territory to stake out formal and informal control of new regions.